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Cells and Model Organisms

Crash Course in Microbial Identification

Need a crash course in microbial identification methods? Here we give you a rundown of the methods available for the identification of bacteria, yeast, or filamentous fungi to the species level.

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Pop Quiz!: Do You Know How a Coulter Counter Works?

Are you an immunologist or lab personnel dealing with counting tons of cells? Then you must have come across the elusive Coulter Counter! Read on to know a little history ofthe instrument’s technology and its working principle.

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The Culture of Primary Schwann Cells  

Have you been itching to branch into working with Schwann cells for your next experiment, but aren’t quite sure where to begin? This article will help you decide which primary Schwann cell line is best for your needs.

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Tips for Successful Bone Marrow Isolation 

During my first year of graduate school, I learned how to isolate bone marrow. I remember watching my mentor in awe, wondering how would I be able to do such a difficult technique. Flash forward to a few weeks later and I was confidently undertaking bone marrow isolation. Learning a new technique is always daunting,…

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Culturing M1 and M2 Macrophages: Media Matters

Macrophages are a type of white blood cell derived from monocytes that are most widely known for the ability to phagocytose cell debris, pathogens, and even cancer cells. However, it is becoming clear that the role of macrophages goes beyond eliminating cellular waste. Macrophages are often used in conjunction with T cells to measure immune…

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The What, Why and How of Explant Culture

What Is Explant Culture and Why Should I Use It? Explant culture is the culture of small pieces of tissue surgically removed from animal tissue or organ. It is a useful method for several reasons. The maintenance of the histotypic architecture and biochemical properties of the cells means it more closely resembles the tissue in…

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6 Steps for Successful in vitro Drug Treatment

You might have seen one of the many anti-drug ads the 80s had to offer (including this delightful message from Robocop) and rightfully steered clear of drugs. But when it comes to biology, we use in vitro drug treatment for many experimental purposes, including testing anti-cancer treatments or synchronizing the cell cycle. If you are facing your first in vitro…

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Nodulation: What Is It and Why Is It Important?

Plants are incredibly organisms. Not only do they provide atmospheric oxygen, but, in the case of legumes, they can transform atmospheric nitrogen gas to ammonia, which can then be consumed by humans. How does this happen, you ask? It’s all thanks to bacteria and the process of nodulation. Deep Breaths Nitrogen is an incredibly important…

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What the HEK? A Beginner’s Guide to HEK293 Cells 

If you’re at all familiar with cell culture, you’ve probably heard of HEK293 cells. HEK293 are one of the most commonly used cell lines in laboratories across the globe. But what are they? Why should you use them? And what does the ‘293’ mean? Are HEK293T the same thing? Read on for answers to these…

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Successful Start: Tips for Establishing Organoids

Organoids are a developing star of research. They can be grown to represent the majority of mammalian organs and have a wide range of possible applications. More realistic than simple monolayer cell culture, they offer an in-between step that reduces the need for animal models and simplifies (although doesn’t completely remove) ethics paperwork. They are…

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How to Preserve Microorganisms: the long (and short) game

Given the importance of microorganisms as cell factories in biotechnological applications and as model organisms for the study of various biological processes, the preservation of microorganisms plays a key role in ensuring reproducible results and continuity in research. Maintaining a library of microbial stocks also enables microorganisms to be easily stored and retrieved, as compared…

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Staying Alive: Tips for Air-Liquid Interface Cultures

What Is Air-Liquid Interface Culture? Long gone are the days where scientists had to rely on 2D cultures of immortalized cell lines to learn principles of human biology. Today, we have a variety of cell culture systems that come closer than ever before to mimicking the structure and function of our body’s organs. One example…

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C. elegans: The Elegant Model System

In research, choosing a model system is like choosing a partner – you want it to be a perfect fit. If you are attempting to solve problems such as finding unknown proteins in known processes, investigating unknown functions of known proteins or correlating cell biology to a function for which you want a relatively simple…

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Five Factors Affecting Your Mouse Behavioral Studies 

Let’s face it: the nature of behavior itself is inherently variable, whether it’s the heterogeneous socializing behavior of humans at parties, the complex aggressive behavior of rodents when they perceive a threat, or the intricate courtship behavior of insects during their mating dances. Because of this variability, the struggles associated with trying to (successfully) reproduce…

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A Bug Ate My Experiment, Part 2

In the first article of this series, I introduced microscopic parasites that infect greenhouse plants.  Initially, my goal for Part 2 was to list all the main types of infestations, but I quickly realized to do so would result in a textbook. Thus, this article will be about the most familiar and easy to identify…

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Isolating Monocytes from Whole Blood: A Step-by-Step Guide

If you look at the composition of peripheral blood, using hematology microscopy, you’ll see that it’s composed of multiple different cell types, including monocytes. It’s possible to isolate these different components to study and experiment on them directly. So, if you’ve done a few experiments and had fun with THP-1 cells, you can move on…

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Culturing the Unculturable: Working with Difficult Bacteria

As the vast majority of bacteria cannot be readily cultured in the laboratory [1], culture-dependent methods to investigate bacteria grossly underestimate the diversity of bacterial communities. To investigate unculturable bacteria without isolating them, culture-independent methods such as sequencing have been used. Unculturable bacteria can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing of housekeeping genes such…

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How to Transform Microalgae

What is the first image which comes to mind when you think about microalgae? Green scum that covers the surfaces of ponds? Unsightly stains on pavements and walls? Far from being a nuisance in ponds, lakes, drains and on surfaces, microalgae are fascinating microorganisms which are used to understand various biological processes. Microalgae have been…

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Assays: Wellular to Cellular

Out with the Old… Well-based assays have been the standard for common laboratory experiments, such as fluorescence cytometry. A researcher places a small amount of sample into a well on a plate and assays it, which produces a single data point. However, this so-called single data point is actually an average of the measurements of…

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An Invisible Bug Ate My Experiment: What to Do about Greenhouse Infestation

In theory, the greenhouse is a controlled laboratory environment where only the organisms you’ve introduced live. But in practice, just as other laboratory environments suffer from ‘unwelcomed guests’ (e.g. contamination and infestation), greenhouses are not always as sterile as you would like. To avoid any experimental issues, you have to be vigilant about these pesky…

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The Mysterious World of Macrophages: How to Harness Them for Your Research

The Mysterious World of Macrophages: How to Harness Them for Your Research In this tutorial, you will learn: How to work with mouse and human macrophages The best methods for culturing macrophages The difference between M1 and M2 macrophages, and how to differentiate each population from monocytes What data to expect based on the conditions…

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How to Feed Fruit Fly Larvae Small Molecules

Generally speaking, fruit flies are a great model system. Not only are they small, thus taking up very little space in the lab, but their adult lifespan is only 40-60 days, so you can track age-dependent changes without having to wait months and months. Fruit flies also display complex behaviors and more than 75% of…

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